The concept of Smart Grid is transforming the electric power grid by using advanced automatic control and communications techniques. It is an electricity network based on digital technology that is used to supply electricity to the consumer via two-way communication. It was introduced with the aim of overcoming the weaknesses of the conventional grid using smart net meters.
A smart meter is one of the key feature of this system. Transfer from the analog meter to the digital meter has its own significance. This is essential for the two way communication between producers and consumers. This meter also collects data which are essential for the proper functioning of the system. With these collected data, the power generation plant predicts and triggers up whenever there is peak demand and also reduces the production at non-peak hours. This system is more flexible and efficient than the traditional method currently implemented.
The Smart Meter also enables the consumer to be notified about their power consumption. This system ensures improved quality of power. One main advantage of this system is that the load can be shifted from peak hours to non-peak hours, hence reducing the electricity consumed. Even the report suggest that notifying consumers about their consumption has resulted in a 15 per cent decline in power consumption.
One major difference between Smart Grid and Conventional Grid on the basis of the design idea is, Smart Grid is based on “Demand – Follows – Supply” while conventional grid on “Supply – Follows – Demand”. Smart Grids promise to facilitate the integration of renewable energy. Hence it ensures better energy management and contributes green economy by reducing carbon emission.
It is also known as Self-Healing Grids due to its ability to self-detect faults and restore it without human intervention. Smart Grid is one of the best technology to reduce energy consumption. China, America & Japan has already implemented Smart Grid technology.
India would also adopt this system in the near future. The National Smart Grid Mission was approved by Indian Ministry of Power in 2017. Currently, 14 smart grid pilot have been chosen across the country where the project will be implemented at the initial phase. Works have started already and the government update the progress monthly on the website. With this project we will be able to overcome the energy crisis and moreover produce renewable and efficient energy.